A example of binary thought could be: describing a real school as
interested in method and goal. The most recent real school stressed that you do not discuss, do not label, the goal. By method we refer to how you get results--- in the case of Gurdjieff that would be self-observation, and Jan Cox called it many things besides self-observation: 'neuralizing', 'considering' are just a few examples.
Looking back in history we might describe the middle ages as concerned ONLY with the " GOAL." There was no general discussion of how you get to heaven. There were no questions about morality.
Contrast this with the modern era, which has no GOAL, just METHOD. My reference here is to the scientific method and the widespread vacuous assumption that science is atheistic. I'm just making a cheap point here.
Thesis, antithesis. I cannot say a new synthesis is not in the offing, a synthesis heralded by the inane and vapid--- Whether or not, it falls out that way, my point is --- it could.